Sumerian literature is the oldest literature in the world. They invented the first writing system with cuneiform logograms with a syllabary writing system. The literature of this civilization influenced writings like the bible. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the most famous and oldest literature in Mesopotamian history. It was written on 12 clay tablets made up of Sumerian legends and poems. 


Sumerian cities were surrounded by walls for protection. To build their houses they mostly used mud, they could easily be shaped by hand, and baked under the hot sun until dry. The Mesopotamians invented the dome and arch and built some of the largest mud brick buildings in the world. 


Religion was very important in Ancient Mesopotamia. The temples, built on ziggurats, were the center of the city. The Mesopotamians were polytheistic and worshipped hundreds of gods. They also practiced divine belief. Each city was believed to have their own god or goddess to guard them. The Hebrews were an exception to this though they were monotheistic nomads who believe in one God and are always on the move. 

Gender Roles

Mesopotamia was a patriarchal society. The men were  more powerful than the women. Women spent their time maintaining the house, however, unlike most civilizations at the time, women could own property and had rights. 

Social Structure

Priests, aristocrats, and nobles ruled Ancient Mesopotamia. On the lower end were the peasants and the slaves while the "free class" consisted of merchants, artisans, and intellectuals.

Weapons, Tools, and Technology

The Mesopotamians developed a system of writing and were a very technologically advanced people.  They invented the first batteries, they wove textiles, and they made lamps.  They used swords, spears, daggers, and maces for weapons. 


Mesopotamia is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and it is a Semi arid environment. In the north rain feeds the agriculture but in the south irrigation is needed to keep the agriculture growing. Mesopotamia does not have much stone, timber or metals in their area so the people often had to rely on trade. In the south they fished in marshes.


Mesopotamia's economy was made up mostly by farming but trade and industry became important as well. They were also producers of metal work, woolen textiles, and pottery. The Sumerians gave them copper, tin, and timber. An important economic invention in Mesopotamia was the wheel in 3000 B.C. because it made trading and transportation easier.


 Ziggurats were massive stepped towers that the Mesopotamians built temples on.



The invention of the wheel in boosted Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Civilization's economy.


Epic of Gilgamesh.

 These are swords used by mesoportamian soldiers used in close quarter combat.


This is a map of the  trade routes and the geography of Mesopotamia.

Gilgamesh was a Sumerian hero and the protagonist in The Epic of Gilgamesh. He was two thirds god and one third man. Gilgamesh went on a quest for eternal life after the death of his friend Engidu, but realized that immortality was only for the gods.
The Mesopotamians used their written language as a tool to communicate without being face to face.

This is a loom like those that the Meopotamians would have used to weave their textiles.

King Hammurabi wrote the code of Hammurabi, the first known written set of rules in history. He was the greatest king of the Mesopotamian civilization. When he ended his reign, the civilization struggled to find a new leader as wise as he.