The earliest works were composed to be sung or recited.  Some familiar stories are the Ramayana and the Mahabharata most of the authors are unknown. Indian literature is portrayed as one of the oldest language in the world. The Aryans developed their first writing system known as the Sanskrit. They wrote down important things like chants and historical events. They mostly passed this information orally from generation to generation before writing it down. 


The architechture in India is based around its history and culture. Evidence shows remainings of mud brick houses and granaries. The Angkor Wat in Cambodia is a famous building in India. There were three main types of structures, the pillar, rock chamber, and the stupa. Many pillars were put on sides of roads to mark sites related to events in Buddha's life.


When the Aryans conquered the civilization they introduced Hinduism to the people in 800 B.C. The Indus were polytheistic and had many  gods. They believed in Nirvana, or an after life. An important aspect of hinduism is the required sacrifices and offerings. Also, unlike other societies, many deities were feminie and emphasized fertility.

Social Structure

When the Aryans arrived, a distinct social system developed. The Caste System created a major seperation between the upper and lower class. The Brahmins were priests, Kshatriyas were the rulers of the society and were made up of warriors and aristocrats, and Vaishyas were the cultivators, artisans, and merchants. The peasants and serfs were called Shudras. At the bottom of the system were the Untouchables the lowest of the low. They were considered unclean and inhuman. 

Gender Roles

Women had some rights in this civilization, however, only men could own land and recieve an education. The women were responsible for bearing children and maintaining the household. An emphasis was put on the women in this culture as many of the gods were feminine in form.

Weapons, Tools, and Technology

The Indus Valley people were socially organized.  They had the first hospitals, wide streets, public and private wells, drains, bathing platforms and reservoirs.   In addition to that, they also had a uniform measure of weight.  Little is known about the people of the Indus civlization and what's based on physical evidence.  They were a highly developed people who, due to their geographic isolation, had no real need for weapons.  Although they are there in the event that you need them.  They were primitive though, their spear heads shattered on contact and their arrowheads are made of stone, swords however were non-existant.


The Indus River Civilization's economy was based on cotton, their main crop. They also had granaries in their villages which harvested a lot a grain. Systems such as the harvesting and their grid system for their streets made the Indus River Valley Civilization more technologically advanced than Egypt. They also had plumbing in their houses. Most of this River Valley Civilization's wealth came from horticulture which is farming, growing plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, and taming a garden, orchard, and/or nursery.


The Indus River Valley Civilization was located in present- day Pakistan. This civilization extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. There are many mountains, valleys and plains near and in the Indus River Valley Civilization which is actually a very dry plateau. The Himalaya Mountains are in the north which helped to protect the civilization.

 This is another option for the main character in the Indus RIver Valley Civilization in the Civilizations game named Devadatta. Devadatta was a buddhist monk, as well as Gautama Buddhas cousin. He created a schism in the mosaic community. Devadatta was always described as being jealous of his cousin Buddha because of his accomplishments and great wisdom. 

This map shows the geography of the Indus River Valley Civilization.

 Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. This is Shiva, just one of the many Hindi gods.

The Indus people used tools like this hand held axe to do neccesary work. 

These are arrow heads used by the peoples of the Indus civilization.  They are weak and shatter on impact.

 This is the main character in the Indus River Valley Civilization during the Ancient India. He was the inventor of Buddhism which is a popular religion in India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices. There are about 230 million 500 million buddhist in the world. Buddha actually means a title meaning the "Enlightened One". 

In India, the Angkor Wat is very famous. It is located in Cambodia.

This picture shows the Indus River Valley Civilization's sewage system. This just demonstrates that this civilization was very technologically advanced in their economy.